Several people have asked me why we are planting non native deciduous trees on our property. I have a complicated answer, and it largely comes from a recognition that our landscape has changed. The Rock Farm is not native bush. Even the native forests north of our property are different from when Europeans first saw them. The land the Rock Farm is in was managed with fire by the Ngunnawal people over thousands of years. It is our responsibility as custodians of this beautiful property to manage it and set it up for our future. Our aims by planting non native deciduous trees are to:
- Protect our property from bushfire,
- Improve our soil health, and
- Provide sustainable agriculture in a woodland like setting.
A friend of my father, John, has spent all his life planting trees on his property in the southern highlands. He estimates that he has planted around 35 000 trees of all types on his farm that produces top quality beef cattle. John has planted stands of native eucalyptus, pines and oaks, and has been able to watch the trees grow and observe the effects on the soil.
Now in his eighties, John is convinced that deciduous trees are best suited for improving the soil and reducing fire risk. One of John’s favourite oaks is the Daimyo Oak (quercus dentata). This is also known as the Korean Oak or Japanese Emperor Oak, and is known as a fast growing specimen tree. John has observed this to be the case, with lines of Daimyo Oaks out pacing several supposedly fast growing native species planted nearby at the same time. We filled many paper bags with acorns from some of John’s trees.
John also directed us to collect acorns of the Californian Swamp Oak (quercus lobata) from Mouat Street in Lyneham. This is the largest of the north american oak trees, and does well with hot dry summers and cool wet winters. This magnificent tree can live for 600 years. This is just around the corner from where our boys play hockey, so with a few of their team mates pressed into service, we soon had filled several more bags with acorns.
Armed with plenty of acorns, we started to put some in the ground.
We are trying a mix of strategies. The first one is direct seeding. I am trialing planting a bunch of acorns in the ground where I want the trees to grow. The acorns were planted in late autumn, just below the surface, the majority in small gullies like below. I am planting the trees well away from established natives such as the eucalyptus growing in the far right of this photo. The observant will notice many young trees growing around this tree, and these will also be preserved to protect the headwaters of this gully and provide native habitat.
As you can see above, we have been putting a lot of garden prunings into our gullies. These prunings from pin oaks and peppermint gums will provide mulch and protection for the young oak trees to grow. I selected a small flatter area where soil had been deposited and placed the seeds in the ground. I repeated this in several sites over several small gullies.
The plant below is a sweet briar (rosa rubiginosa). It is a weed, but like weeds it is fulfilling a niche that was once carried out by native plants. It is spread by birds that eat its berries as their native food supplies are no longer abundant. I am slashing and chipping out these weeds, but am also conscious I need to ensure habitat for these birds. I thought I would also use some of them as part of my experiment.
This paddock has only been grazed by Kangaroos for the past 18 months. The grass under the sweet briar is thicker, and more lush that the surrounding areas. So what I have done is plant some acorns at the base of these plants. I hope that as the young oaks establish, the sweet briar will afford them some protection from grazing.
What I didn’t expect to find as I planted some of my acorns was this beautiful frog also using the sweet briar to shelter in. I am not sure, but I think it is a Green and Golden Bell Frog (litoria aurea). I was extremely pleased to find this little fellow, and relieved that I hadn’t sprayed the sweet briar to kill it.
Some of the other acorns we have placed in moist potting mix and put in the fridge. We are waiting for some rain to increase our soil moisture before we plant these acorns out.
People have asked me why I haven’t grown the seed in a garden bed and then planted out the seedlings? There is a couple of reasons.
- Research suggests that trees planted in their final site respond better than those that are transplanted. There is no stress on the fragile root system of the plant that sometimes happens when plants are moved. We have observed this ourselves at our last property where trees planted from seed did far better than young seedlings that we nurtured and watered over a long hot summer.
- Plants that are transplanted require watering to establish. This is difficult and time consuming, especially on a rural property where we have to hook up a water trailer in order to bring water to the plants.
- Hares. The European Hare is extremely territorial and will cut off any plant that appears in its patch with a trunk as thick as a finger or less. For some reason if the plant grows from seed, it is far less likely to see the young tree as a threat or incursion on its territory and is far more likely to leave it alone.
- We are lazy and haven’t set up a suitable garden bed yet. This is a work in progress (we currently have our chooks working on our first garden bed – see below)
That said, we will try transplanting seedlings. There is nothing like experimenting with a range of strategies to determine which is the most effective way to establish trees to improve soil. It is all part of the adventure, and I love it 🙂